we will hope, have a made it clear that the components of pest and vector control which are most likely to be generally applicable are chemical control,biological control,host resistance and environmental/cultural control. In relation to these components, the three examples just quoted have one striking common feature. in all the solutions two particular components, chemical control and biological control, were used together. In the event the proponents of chemical and biological control probably to the surprise of both came together where the to converging not diverging roads finally met in the development of what was then termed integrated control here Bord-spectrum pesticides were replaced by a non-persistent plant etc insecticides which allowed the egg parasites of moths to survive.fungicide application were largely restricted to gliding, which had little effect on the arthropod fauna.
The examples of cotton, lucre and chrysanthemum all reflect the original aim of integrated control definition. Chemical control is used as necessary and in a manner which is least disruptive to biological control.The later sentence suggests that the chemical should be selective between the various life forms which might encounter it in the field, especially between the pest and natural enemies, including the natural enemies of other pest species.
In fact stern and his co-workers somewhat undersold integrated control when they regarded chemical control as being use in a way which is least disruptive to biological control. The examples Quoted earlier suggest that integrated control can go much farther then this it can even become predominantly biological control made effective by using insecticides the insecticides which failed had only be introduced in the first place because the beneficial insects were not giving adequate control on their own at the use of stomach poison as a part of the solution problem in a world re-introduced biological control agent to survive.some aphids were still killed with the low does of insecticide and this made the difference between effective and non-effective biological control in the chrysanthemum gals house, it was the introduction of the selective insecticides empirical, which made it economically possible to contemplate biological control of red spider mite the whitely.
Now pick up almost any other book on integrated control or Termite Control Noida and it will likely deal almost exclusively with agricultural pests. this is barbecues the principle aim with medical and veterinary vectors and pests has usually been to get as possible to eradicate such insectivore to manage them. the most effective tools for eradication have been chemically. nevertheless, integrated management has been practices, almost unknowingly,for many years. for example, during the first half of the twentieth century, malaria control was undertaken around centers of economic importance such as a tea states mining camps to protect the workers.The approach was holistic,such as introducing fish in to the water thanks and wells,re-aligning waster courses to eliminate shallow pockets of water,draining small marshes,using mosquito nets and administering quinine.