Apart from being one of the fastest growing industries in the country, poultry industry is producing a huge quantity of waste whether in the form of feed residuals, egg shells, bird feathers, bird mortalities due to any disease, etc. These wastes will pose a serious danger to the society and the environment if not taken care properly. Such waste can have an adverse impact on the poultry farms themselves in the form of reduced productivity or some other way. Thus, the proper and adequate waste disposal methods are important to adopt in order to eliminate these harmful effects or at least to reduce them to the minimum possible level.
Nowadays, poultry incinerator is the latest innovation which is being used by the poultry farm owners in the western countries for managing the poultry waste. But, in this article, we are going to discuss about all possible methods which can be adopted in order to deal with poultry waste. These methods are: –
- Burial: This is one of the safest and economical methods for poultry waste disposal. Usually, this is a highly preferred method for disposal of the carcasses of the dead poultry animals or for the catastrophic mortality events. Under this method, burial pits are used to bury the poultry waste and these pits are designed, maintained and used in such a way that the spread of any type of diseases can be avoided. For example, for the burial of mortalities, the burial pits must be located at least 92 meters away from any water well, property lines or neighbouring residences. This is done in order to avoid the ground water contamination or any other such issue.
- Burning: This is one of the most common methods among the farmers, which is used for the disposal of the mortalities, animal waste or any such poultry waste. Under this method, Poultry waste material is burned at high temperature using the fuel such as diesel or wood.
However, this waste disposal method is not much suggested because it causes the environmental pollution and it often results in the incomplete carcass combustion which may lead towards the emission of dioxins or furans.
- Incineration: Incineration is a type of thermal treatment, which reduces its mass of the solid waste by 90-95% and converts it into ash material. Moreover, the by-product of the incineration does not attract insects or rodents and it also eliminates the chances of diseases. Thus, incineration is a biologically safer option than burning.
But incineration is not fully harmless option for poultry waste disposal as it produces some flue gases and heat in the air which leads to the air pollution. Apart from this, this is an expensive method of waste disposal and cannot be adopted by any farmer. There are various kinds of small animal incinerators, which are used by poultry farmers as per their need.
- Compositing: Compositing is a biological process, under which the organic material is broken down and decomposed by the microbial populations, which usually work under the high temperature. Such organic material is broken down into water, carbon dioxide, minerals and stabilized organic matter. Thus, this waste disposal method converts the waste into something which is more acceptable in the environment.
- Rendering: Rendering means using the heat in order to remove the fat from the meat. Basically, the waste is exposed to 133 degrees Celsius for at least 20-30 minutes at 3 bars or an alternative heat treatment, for making it suitable for feeding purpose or as fertilizers.
Rendering products can be used as fertilizers or in animal feed. Some of such products can be used as an energy source in the form of fuel or in the chemical industry.
The proper disposal of the poultry waste should be ensured through any of the above-mentioned methods as it will not only improve the situation for poultry industry itself, but will also eliminate the unnecessary discomfort caused to the other living beings and the environment.