For any new aspiring developer, there are literally hundreds of programming languages they can learn and work upon. Of them, we consider around a dozen languages to be better than the rest- not necessarily because they can do something that other languages can’t but because of they are more efficient at tasks that developers require the most. Java and Python are two such immensely popular languages that are obviously better than most languages but isn’t clear which one’s the better?
In a survey on StackOverflow last year for the most disliked programming language, Java scored many more dislikes than Python. But at the same time, its user base is also quite larger than Python. So why do so many developers use a language they hate? Well, because it gets things done and can be used for anything- from IoTs and servers to mobile apps and enterprise apps. The story is apposite for Python- developers love it but don’t use it very often. Primarily because Python offers its best in only specific tasks like image processing, machine learning, scientific formulations, and more.
With such variations, can we even compare these two languages? And more importantly, if we do, which one’s better between Java vs Python.
When pitching two languages against each other, there are a few aspects that are genuinely beyond comparison. For instance, the white space in Python is often seen as one of its features but some programmers genuinely like using braces.
The other and possibly the overhyped aspect is the use of these languages by large corporations for their big projects. Yes, that does reflect the power of the corresponding language and the expected long-term support due to corporate backing, but there is little value for common developers. For example, NASA uses Python for many of its projects and that does reflect the capabilities of the language. But for common developers, that shouldn’t be a big motivator because such implementations use highly optimized environments for their systems that include bits of many more languages- something virtually impossible for common Python development services to create.
The differentiating factors
Now, this is something that’s been debated for decades and we’ll just give you a crux of it. For numeric scientific code, Python runtime is well short of Java. But when it comes to general code, Java retains an upper hand. So instead of looking for a generic better performer, you should look at your purpose and see which language fits the best.
Handling of complexity
Java is an Object-oriented language- known to drastically bring down the complexity of large programs. Python, besides supporting Object-oriented paradigm, also has support for a whole range of other programming paradigms including functional, procedural, and imperative. This means if any particular program isn’t well suited for object-oriented structure, Python offers easy alternatives.
That said, Java has been designed from day one to have minimum dependencies and it becomes a major benefit when an application grows to have a high number of classes. Overall, while both the languages handle complexity quite well, the interpretability of Java certainly gives it an upper hand. But for programs that would run on a single architecture, Python too would match the same efficiency.
Languages by themselves are almost powerless unless equipped with supporting tools and technologies. In this regard, both languages are lucky to have an immensely large catalog of tools and libraries. You can’t possibly think of any application for which there isn’t already a library in both the
When you are out to hire a developer, you would notice that Python programmers cost more than Java developers. This is because Python is used for highly specific tasks and thus there are fewer resources available. This can be interpreted in two ways- for a project manager, choosing Java development services over Python would save considerable costs while for aspiring developers, choosing Python over Java would convert into higher income.