The qualities of a manager are generalized, most stable characteristics that have a decisive influence on managerial activity. These are very complex in the psychological plan of education, depending on many factors: the nature of the character, the structure of the personality, its orientation, experience, ability, conditions of activity. The manager’s talent is determined by many psychological qualities that are professionally important. The multifaceted nature of managerial activity imposes a kind of imprint on the manager’s personal characteristics. Professionally important qualities of the manager are considered at three levels:
- at the level of tasks of the manager
- at the behavioural level
- at the level of personality properties
Based on the managerial activity of the manager, the following professionally important qualities can be distinguished. However, the organizational qualities, characterized by the ability to select, arrange personnel, plan work, provide clear control. Organizational qualities are consequences of manifestation of a number of psychological properties of a person. The most important are:
- Psychological selectivity – the ability to adequately, without distortion, reflect the psychology of the organization.
- Criticism and self-criticism are the ability to see shortcomings in the actions and actions of other people and their actions.
- Psychological contact is the ability to establish a measure of influence, influence on other people.
- Demanding – the ability to make adequate demands, depending on the specifics of the situation.
- The propensity to organizational activity, i.e. the need for its implementation.
- The ability to recharge other people’s energy, activate them.
- Purposefulness is the ability to set clear and clear and strive to achieve it;
- Flexibility is the ability to really assess the circumstances, to adapt to them without changing, while in principle positions;
- Workability is the ability to perform work with high efficiency for a long time;
- Persistence is a strong-willed personality of a person, manifested in a persistent striving to reach a consciously set goal;
- Self – reliance is the ability to carry out activities, relying on one’s own abilities without someone else’s help;
- Discipline – submission to the established order, the ability to establish and maintain discipline in the team;
- Initiative – the ability to act vigorously, the ability to put forward ideas and outline ways to implement them.
- The general basis for the development of a manager as a specialist and as a competent manager is intellectual qualities. Intellect can or does not act as a factor in the success of the manager, depending on what manager resources – intellectual or communicative are included in his activities.
- Communication qualities are essential for managerial activities such as the ability to cooperate and group work, behavioural orientations in resolving conflict situations and social competence in the implementation of their goals. The manager in his activity constantly carries out three types of communication mentioned below:
- a) subordinate or communication with the interaction of the leader and subordinates.
- b) service-comradely – this is a communication between the leaders-colleagues.
- c) friendly – this is communication-based on moral and psychological norms of relationships.
The most important quality of the manager is resistance to stress. Stress-resistance is the ability to withstand strong negative emotional influences, causing high mental tension, since the activities of the manager take place under conditions of considerable psychological stress. Thus, it is possible to distinguish organizational, intellectual, motivational-volitional and entrepreneurial qualities in the structure of professionally important managerial qualities.
However, depending on the specific situation and goals, it is important to apply precisely this or that style of communication. If the manager has communication skills, then it is easy for him to establish business contacts. Therefore, the ability to establish business contacts, to have people to themselves depends on the manner of behaviour. Good manners help to adapt quickly to any situation, simplify the establishment of contacts, expand opportunities to influence people.
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