There are many key things you need to know before you buy an ozone electrical generator. Before going into details, nevertheless, it is important to note that we will be talking about corona discharge type ozone generators. These are the most crucial type of commercial/industrial ozone power generators. There are other types of an ozone generator, but noncoronary release units are mostly for use in small-scale applications, producing typically less than 50 % a pound per day or perhaps less than 10 grams each hour of ozone.
This article will evaluate the key selection factors and exactly how it relates to various applications for ozone and the effect on the cost of an ozone generator.
The important thing factors include:
- Result: This is how much ozone the equipment makes, normally quoted in grams per hour or pounds per day.
- Concentration: Ozone can be produced at diverse concentrations ranging from 1-12 excess weight percent. The concentration of ozone has an effect on most applications and also affects machine results.
- Gas Feed: you’ll want a source of a feed gas containing oxygen, there are 3 choices: dry air, o2 concentrated from the air or perhaps purchased oxygen (either because liquid oxygen (LOX) or perhaps compressed oxygen in cylinders).
- Generator Cooling: Ozone generator creates heat that needs to be removed, the options for removing this kind of heat are air chilling or water cooling.
Choosing the proper combination of features is dependent strongly on the application. For instance, in water treatment applications higher concentrations of ozone are used while in airflow treatment applications lower concentrations can be selected.
Ozone Electrical generator Output
This is the most important factor in selecting a Generators Tulsa. The amount of ozone required is founded on the application requirements. If the ozone is being used for the removal of organic and natural contaminants from water, the quantity of ozone is proportional to the amount of organic inside the water, the efficiency from the ozone organic reaction as well as the efficiency of dissolving the ozone into the water.
As a specific example, ozone is normally used to reduce chemical air demand (COD) in drinking water. COD is measured in ppm (milligrams per liters – mg/l). It usually takes 2 mg of ozone per mg of COD to remove the COD. Therefore, if we had to treat 12, 000 liters per hour of water containing 50 ppm of COD we would require:
10, 000 liters/hour Times 50 mg/l COD times 2 mg Ozone/mg COD = 1, 000, 500 mg/hour
1, 000, 1000 mg/hour = 1, 500 g/hour = 1 kg/hour
So, we would need to break down 1 kg/h of ozone (or 52. 8 pounds per day of ozone)
Lower than 100% of the ozone shot in the water dissolves, therefore we need to know the ozone copy efficiency. A well-designed venturi injection system can melt at least 90% in the ozone. For the case over, you would need 1 kg/h ÷ 0. 90 sama dengan 1. 11 kg/h (58. 7 pounds per day of ozone). This is the amount of ozone we would have to create at the targeted concentration to dissolve the 1 kg/h of ozone into normal water.
Important: A given system will certainly produce less ozone since the concentration of ozone increases. Ozone transfer effectiveness, the rate at which ozone dissolves into water increases with increasing ozone concentration. The two factors will determine the last size of the machine required.
Identifying the amount of ozone required, aside from the simplest applications, requires lab or pilot studies coupled with an engineering evaluation to choose the proper balance between ozone dose, concentration and electrical generator size. Normally, an ozone generator company will not be capable to provide this information. If they will help, there will be an additional price for conducting the research.
As mentioned above, ozone concentration can impact both the effectiveness of ozone in a given application plus the amount of ozone that can be produced from a given ozone electrical generator. Essentially, high concentration ozone costs more but can perform more in certain applications. Industrial corona discharge systems generate anywhere from 1 weight percent ozone to 12 pounds percent ozone. Gas treatment applications typically use the 1-3 percent range while drinking water treatment applications normally make use of 5-10 percent.
An important facet of ozone concentration is in evaluating different ozone generators. Producers use different bases intended for claiming the nominal end result of an ozone generator. Normally, you have to read the fine print to see what concentration they use to claim the production rate.
As an example:
End result (g/h) Concentration (%) Cost
Supplier #1 60 six $5, 500
Supplier #2 60 4 $3, 800
At similar concentrations the results would look distinct:
Supplier #2 60 6th $6, 000
(g/h sama dengan grams/hour)
So, to pretty compare machines you need to know the number of ozone produced at a degree of interest along with the cost of the generator. This will allow you to evaluate ozone generators “apples to apples”.
Ozone Generator Gas Feed
Ozone generators may run on various oxygen resources such as dry air, focused oxygen or purchased fresh air as a feed gas. Initially, a brief discussion of feed gas. Originally, ozone generators primarily worked with air as the feed gas. Air consists of about 20% oxygen in support of the oxygen that can be transformed into ozone. Using air while the feed gas, the most economic concentration of ozone that can be obtained is about a few weight percent.
In addition, the environment must be extremely dry since moisture reduces ozone outcome and will damage the ozone generator. To produce a reasonable focus of ozone, the air should have a dryness as assessed by the dew point of approximately -100 degrees Fahrenheit. This means that in a million parts of the atmosphere there is only one part of normal water. This level of dryness needs special dryers to remove humidity. Refrigerated dryers found on a few compressors can only reach in regards to a dew point of -40 degrees Fahrenheit.
Using a given food to gas with oxygen attention greater than 90% allows the ozone concentration to increase for the 5-10 percent range. Additionally, ozone generators produce larger outputs of ozone when it comes to pounds per day or grams per hour using oxygen compared to air.
Purchased oxygen commonly is very dry due to the production process used. It can be bought as a compressed gas in cylinders or as water. The volume that can be stored like a compressed gas is much less space-consuming than in liquid form. Therefore, unless the ozone electrical generator is being only used for brief amounts of time, compressed gas is probably not a good feed gas option.
Liquid oxygen, occasionally referred to as LOX, can be provided in small containers or perhaps delivered in truck weight quantities. It must be evaporated towards the gas phase prior to employment. It is the most economical type of oxygen if the oxygen creation plant is not too much away.
Another option is to focus oxygen from the air within a process known as pressure golf swing absorption (PSA). In this procedure a material called a molecular sieve absorbs both drinking water and nitrogen from surroundings leaving mainly oxygen inside the gas stream. Oxygen concentrations of 90-95% are easily achieved. The process is done in both small scale as well as huge industrial systems. Small applications include portable oxygen devices for people that need supplemental breathable oxygen for breathing.
So, in conclusion, the main feed gases to get ozone are dry weather, PSA oxygen or liquefied oxygen. Some ozone generation devices can run on all three give food to gas, but this is not usually the case. Some ozone electrical generator suppliers design their devices to run either on airflow or some form of higher attentiveness oxygen. It is important to know this kind of ahead of time since it might not be feasible to switch once the unit is usually purchased. The key point the following is that if you want a higher amount, you must use an oxygen supply gas system with an electrical generator designed to use this gas.
Ozone Generator Cooling
All ozone generators create heat due to the ozone production method. The generator must be held cool since as the gas temperature increases the ozone will break down back into o2 making the process inefficient. Ozone generator manufacturers provide their particular ozone output and focus data based on a specific working temperature, usually 68-72 levels Fahrenheit.
Every degree over a stipulated temperature results in a decrease of production. For example , for each degree increase in temperature the pace of ozone production reduces by 0. 6% in certain systems. So , if the equipment was supposed to operate in 72 degrees and it is in fact operated at 82 certifications the production would be reduced simply by 6%. Some generators close themselves down completely for certain temperatures to prevent harm. So cooling is a crucial issue for the electrical generator
There are two common air conditioning methods, air cooling with fans and water cooling down. Air cooling is less effective and reduces the size of the ozone generator that can be constructed. In general, ozone generation of over 10 pound each day cannot be readily done with atmosphere cooled ozone systems.
Drinking water cooled systems come in a number of variations. Closed loop systems make use of a water chiller to amazing the water and cycle this continuously through the ozone electrical generator. Water typically enters the ozone generator at about 60 degrees F and leaves at 70 deg F.
Indirect cooling spiral using ground water or perhaps other water sources double. Here a heat exchanger has one side coupled to the ozone generator with a recycling where possible loop and on the other side an once through flow of water available at the site. Usually the water temperature is higher than ideal and a larger generator should be purchased to compensate for losing production.
The choice of the type of normal water cooling and the use of a chiller is based on an executive study to balance the price of the increased generator size with the cost of chilling water.
To summarize the key factors:
1 . Define the application cautiously to determine the amount and attention of ozone required. Should you not know the proper amount of ozone required contract having a capable laboratory or anatomist firm to carry out the necessary analyses.
2 . Make sure to compare ozone production of different ozone machines at the same ozone concentration to obtain a fair comparison of price.
3. For applications requiring more than 5 percent ozone, oxygen will probably be necessary for the feed gas. This will be typical for many water treatment applications.
4. For applications requiring reduce concentrations of ozone, lower than 3 percent, dry air flow is probably the most economical answer. These would typically become applications for air treatment, such as odor control or perhaps control of air borne bacterias.
5. For applications of below 10 pounds per day (less than 190 g/h) surroundings cooled systems may be suitable, but above this level water cooled systems will probably be more economical.